FAQ

Consultation 諮詢

Why do I need a consultation session before any assessment and/or interventions? 為什麼在評估和/或介入前需要進行諮詢?


A session of psychological consultation is necessary before assessment, counseling, and/or intervention. The aim of the consultation session is to seek for direction and measures. It is similar to the medical consultation before prescription.

* please bring along (medical, psychological, or school) report and medical prescription if any.

於評估、輔導和/或其他介入乾預之前,諮詢節必須進行的原因及目的是尋求方向和措施。 類似於藥物處方前的醫療諮詢。 *請隨身攜帶(醫療,心理或學校)報告和醫療處方(如果有)。




What is a consultation? 什麼是諮詢?


Consultation refers to clinical, educational and/or child psychologists using their specialist knowledge and experience to provide a professional opinion, to assist others in problem-solving or to set up services. It is relatively a short-term, i.e. usually one-session interview, to identify current situation in order to make appropriate strategy to work with the concern. Consultations can be in relation to concerns of a particular child/ young person, which may involve working with parents, carers, families or education setting. 諮詢是指臨床、教育和/或兒童心理學家使用他們的專業知識和經驗提供專業意見、協助他人解決問題或建立服務。 諮詢一般相對短期,通常是一次會面,以識別當前情況,以便制定適當的策略來處理相關問題。諮詢亦可以針對有關特定的兒童/年輕人的狀況(可能涉及與父母、照顧者、家庭或教育環境的合作)。




What happens during initial/parent consultation? 初次/家長諮詢節會怎樣進行?


During the inital consulation, which usually takes 75 to 90 minutes, in addition to expectation of the consultation, information related to current situation/condition and concern, such as psychosocial background, health history, family, other relationships, social life and interests, will be gathered. This helps a psychologist get a big picture understanding of how concerns may have developed and how they are impacting a client, in order to formulate appropriate recommendations, plan and/or strategy to proceed together for the concern. For issue about a specific child or young person, parent consultation is highly recommended to be arranged to explore a comprehensive understanding before meeting with the child and/or the young person. * please bring along with (medical, psychological, or school) report and medical prescription if any. 初次諮詢通常需要75至90分鐘,除諮詢的期望外,還會收集與當前狀況和關注有關的信息,例如:心理社交背景、健康史、家庭、其他人際關係、社交生活和興趣等。這有助於全面了解現時狀況、狀況之形成以及其影響,以制定適當的建議、計劃和/或策略。對於有關特定兒童或年輕人的問題,強烈建議在與兒童和/或年輕人會面之前安排家長諮詢,以尋求全面的了解。 *請隨身攜帶(醫療、心理或學校)報告和醫療處方(如果有)。





Psychological Interventions 心理介入措施

What is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy? 認知行為療法是什麼?


Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapeutic modality that has been shown to be effective in over 1,000 research studies. It is a time-sensitive, structured, present-oriented approach that helps individuals identify goals that are most important to them and overcome obstacles that get in the way. It is based on the cognitive model: the way that individuals perceive a situation is more closely connected to their reaction than the situation itself. For more information about CBT, please visit https://beckinstitute.org/get-informed/what-is-cognitive-therapy/ For treatment with CBT on different conditions, please visit https://beckinstitute.org/get-informed/conditions/ 認知行為療法(CBT)是一種已在1000多項研究證明其效用的心理治療取向。這是一種相對有時限對、結構化、當前為本向方法,協助人辨識對他們而言最重要的目標,並克服阻礙前進的障礙。 它基於認知模型:個人感知情況的方式比情況本身更緊密地與其反應聯繫在一起。 有關更多CBT的資訊,請參閱https://beckinstitute.org/get-informed/what-is-cognitive-therapy/
有關CBT對不同情況之處理,請參閱https://beckinstitute.org/get-informed/conditions/




What is EMDR Therapy? 快速眼動療法是什麼?


Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an extensively researched psychotherapy method proven to help people recover from trauma and other distressing life experiences, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, and panic disorders. For more about EMDR, please visit https://www.emdria.org/about-emdr-therapy/ For more about typical EMDR treatment, please visit https://www.emdria.org/about-emdr-therapy/experiencing-emdr-therapy/ 快速眼動療法(EMDR)是一項經過廣泛研究的心理治療方法,被證明可幫助人從創傷和其他令人痛苦的生活經歷中恢復,包括創傷後應激障礙(PTSD)焦慮症、抑鬱症和恐慌症。 有關更多EMDR的資訊,請參閱https://www.emdria.org/about-emdr-therapy/
有關更多一般EMDR治療的資訊,請參閱https://www.emdria.org/about-emdr-therapy/experiencing-emdr-therapy/




What is Theraplay®? Theraplay®是什麼?


Theraplay® is a dyadic child and family therapy that has been recognized by the Association of Play Therapy as one of seven seminal psychotherapies for children. Developed over 50 years ago, and practiced around the world, Theraplay® was developed for any professional working to support healthy child/caregiver attachment. Theraplay enhances relationship building from the "Inside Out". In treatment, the Theraplay® Practitioner guides the parent and child through playful, fun games, developmentally challenging activities, and tender, nurturing activities. The very act of engaging each other in this way helps the parent regulate the child's behavior and communicate love, joy, and safety to the child. It helps the child feel secure, cared for, connected and worthy. For more information, please visit https://theraplay.org Theraplay®是一種以一對親子互動為單位的兒童和家庭療法,被美國遊戲治療協會認可為七種開創性的兒童心理療法之一。 Theraplay®於50年前開發為以專業工作支援健康的兒童/照顧者依戀關係而開發,並在世界範圍內廣泛使用。 Theraplay®從「由內而外」增強建立關係的能力。在治療方面,Theraplay®執行師會引導父母和孩子進行有趣的遊戲,合發展階段的挑戰活動以及溫柔的養育活動。以這種方式參與互相行為本身就可以幫助父母調節兒童的行為,並向兒童傳達愛、喜樂和安全感,亦協助兒童感到安全、被照顧、與人連結及其價值。 請參閱https://theraplay.org 以取得更多資訊。




What is Prescriptive Play Therapy? 處方遊戲療法是什麼?


Developed by Charles Schaefer, the basic premise underlying prescriptive play therapy is the notion that all play therapy approaches have the potential to be the one most useful approach for some children, and no single approach is the best fit for all children. The goal of treatment is to identify the best possible evidence-based intervention or strategy to maximize symptom reduction and promote overall therapeutic gain. 由Charles Schaefer開發,處方遊戲治療的基本前提是所有遊戲治療方法都有可能成為某些兒童最有用的方法,並且沒有一種方法最適合所有兒童。目標是辨識出最佳的循證介入或策略,以最大程度地減少症狀並促進總體治療效果。




What are counseling and psychotherapy? 輔導和心理治療是什麼?


Counseling and Psychotherapy are called "talk therapy" where the concern of client is resolved through a mutual understanding and collaborative process with conversation and behavioral tasks. Most of the times counseling and psychotherapy are interchangeable. Both of them can focus on current behavioral concern (e.g., changing a habit, making a decision, adapting a new environment, etc), and chronic distress and development of the person (e.g., emotional distress or disorder, thinking patterns and consequences, empowerment of the person against stressors, etc), requiring reciprocal respect, honesty and collaboration between a client and a worker. Evidence-based approaches will be applied, which have been evaluated and shown to be effective in clinical research trials. 輔導及心理治療都被稱為「談話治療」。談話治療透過建基於互相理解和合作式的對話及行為方法去解決案主的問題。兩者很多時候是相似而可互換的。兩者都可集中於案主現況特定的行為問題(如改變某個習慣、作出某個決定、適應某個新環境等)及長期困擾及其發展(如情緒困擾或精神障礙、思考模式及其後續、充能案主使其能夠面對壓力源等)。談話治療取決於案主與工作員互相尊重、誠實、及真誠地合作。採用證據爲本的方法(方法已經過評估,並在臨床研究試驗中證明其有效性)。




How counseling and psychotherapy work? 諮詢和心理治療是怎樣進行?


Major steps involved in the process of counseling and psychotherapy: Step 1: Initial Contact (contact us via WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, WeChat or email. Please leave us a contact number so we can contact you with a private message.) and setting up a consultation appointment (will be set up within 48 hours) Step 2: Consultation = Registration, Screening, Assessment and Planning Step 3: Working as a Team = your active participation with your individualized plan. - Each session will be around 50 to 60 minutes. - You may experience a range of emotions and expectations, depending on the psychotherapeutic approach and the circumstances of your situation. - Major tasks: application of interventions, progress evaluation, reviews & modification of plan. Step 4: Summarisation and Termination 以下為輔導/心理治療過程中的主要步驟: 第一步:第一次接觸 (WhatsApp、Facebook、微信或電郵聯繫)及預約諮詢(48小時內可完成。) 第二步:諮詢 = 見面、評測及規劃介入/治療重點 第三步:協作 = 積極參與屬於您的個人化計劃的時間。 - 每次見面約50至60分鐘。 - 取決於您的情況和心理治療的取向,您可能經歷到各種的情感和期望。 - 這個過程中主要任務是介入、評估進展和監測、持續回饋和調整計劃。 第四步:總結和結案




What is evidence-based practice? 什麼是循證實踐?


Evidence-based practice in psychology is the integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of client characteristics, culture, and preferences. EBPP promotes effective psychological practice and enhances public health by applying empirically supported principles of psychological assessment, case formulation, therapeutic relationship, and intervention to all professional practices. 心理學的循證實踐是於案主特徵、文化和偏愛之背景下之最佳研究與臨床專業知識的結合運用有實證支持的心理學評估、個案概念、治療關係和介入之原則,促進心理學應用的效果及增強公共衛生。




What is Biofeedback? 生物反饋是什麼?


Biofeedback is a technique that involves monitoring a person’s physiological state and feeding information about it back to that person. Recipients of the feedback are trained to consciously control aspects of their physiology—using relaxation techniques to slow down heart rate, for example—and this learning is used to help manage symptoms of a variety of medical and psychological conditions. Neurofeedback is a form of biofeedback that involves the use of information from the brain detected using a method such as EEG. For more about Biofeedback, please visit https://www.bcia.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3523 生物反饋是一種涉及觀察人的生理狀態並將其生理狀態資訊反饋給該人的技術。 接收反饋者會學習有意識地控制其生理方面(例如,使用放鬆技術來減慢心率)。此學習可用於幫助管理各種醫學和心理狀況的症狀。神經反饋是生物反饋的一種形式,通過利用檢測來自大腦信息的方法,如EEG等。 更是有關生物反饋的資訊,請參閱https://www.bcia.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3523




What is Couple Facilitation? 伴侶協談導引是什麼?


Couple Facilitators can be marriage educators, clergy, mentor couples, counselors, or healthcare professionals, assisting couples strengthen their relationship though identifying strength and growth areas of couples, initiating meaningful discussion, establishing personal, couple, and family goals, coaching relationship skill-building exercises for communication, conflicts resolution and stress reduction. 伴侶協談導引可以是由婚姻教育者、神職人員、輔導員或醫療保健專業人員,通過識別伴侶的強項和成長領域、發起有意義的討論、建立個人、伴侶和家庭目標、指導與關係相關的技能建設練習(如溝通、解決衝突和減壓)來幫助伴侶加強他們之間的關係。





Testing & Evaluation 評估

What is psychological assessment? 什麼是心理評估?


Psychological assessment is a process of testing that uses a combination of techniques to help arrive at some hypotheses about a person and their behavior, personality and capabilities. Psychological assessment is also referred to as psychological testing. Psychological testing is nearly always performed by a licensed psychologist and/or a trainned mental health profession. 心理評估是一種使用多種技術組合的測試過程,幫助得出有關一個人及其行為、性格和能力的一些假設。 心理評估也稱為心理測試。 心理測試大多由持牌心理學家和/或受過訓練的心理健康專業人士進行。




What does an assessment usually involve? 評估通常涉及什麼?


A psychological assessment generally involves four phases: 1. a pre-assessment consultation 2. session(s) of psychological testing 3. behavioral observation (whenever necessary) 4. post-assessment feedback 心理評估通常包括四個階段:
1.評估前諮詢
2.心理測驗
3.行為觀察(必要時)
4.評估後反饋




What is an assessment report? 評估報告是什麼?


Assessment report generally includes following parts: - purpose for evaluation - assessment procedures - mental status examination/ behavioural observation - relevant background information - datas, results and interpretation of the evaluation - summary/ recommendations 評估報告通常包括以下部分:
-評估目的
-評估程序
-心理狀態檢查/行為觀察
-相關背景信息
-評估的數據、結果和解釋
-摘要/建議




What is psychological assessment for? 心理評估有什麼用?


Psychological assessment identifies one’s abilities and qualities, and helps in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. It usually measures one’s current level of function, intellectual and learning ability, cognitive functioning, social functioning, general personality profiles, or emotional functioning, including but not limited to: - Adaptive Behavior Assessment - Attention Assessment - Autism Spectrum Assessment - Cognitive Assessment - Memory Assessment - Mental Health Assessment - Mood & Behavioral Assessment 心理評估可以識別一個人的能力和素質,並有助於診斷和處理心理狀況。 心理評估通常可用於衡量一個人當前的功能水平、智力和學習能力、認知功能、社交功能、一般人格特徵或情緒功能,包括但不限於:
-自適應行為評估
-注意力/專注力評估
-自閉症譜系評估
-認知評估
-記憶評估
-心理健康評估
-情緒和行為評估




Typical assessment methods. 評估方法


Methods of assessment can be informal (such as conducting natural observations, collecting data, using informant ratings) and formal (using assessment tools such as questionnaires and standardized testing). 評估方法可分為是非正式(進行自然觀察、收集數據、使用知情者評分)和正式(使用量表和標準化測試之類的評估工具)。









Telepyschology 遠程心理

What is Telepsychology? 什麼是遠程心理服務?


The provision of psychological services using technological modalities in lieu of, or in addition to, traditional face-to-face methods (e.g., provision of psychological interventions using phone, videoteleconferencing, use of applications, email). 使用科技代替傳統的面對面方法或使用傳統的面對面方法時加以使用科技(例如,電話、視像會議、使用應用程序、電郵)來提供心理服務。




How does Telepsychology work? 遠程心理服務如何運作?


Web-conferencing platform will be used for most sessions. All you will need is an internet connection and a computer with a webcam and microphone, or a smartphone. After scheduling the first appointment, a secure meeting link will be sent via email. A few minutes before the appointment time, click the link to enter a virtual waiting room. When the session begins, I’ll welcome you into our secure private meeting room where your session will take place. Other Telepsychology will be developed in near future. 網絡會議平台將用於大多數服務中。 您所需要的只是互聯網連接以及帶網絡攝像頭和麥克風的電腦或智能電話。 安排首次見面後,安全的會議鏈接將通過電郵發送。 預約時間前幾分鐘,單擊鏈接進入虛擬等候室。 見面開始時,我將歡迎您進入我們安全的私人虛擬會議室,在該虛擬會議室進行見面。 其他遠程心理服務將在不久的將來發展。





Clinical Supervision 臨床督導

What is Clinical Supervision? 臨床督導是什麼?


Clinical Supervision is a formal, systematic and continuous process of professional support and learning, for practicing helping professionals, in which they are assisted in developing their practice through regular discussion with experienced and trained supervisors and aims to promote autonomous decision-making, valuing the individual’s protection and safe care provision through reflective processes and clinical practice analysis. 臨床督導是一個正式、有系統和連續的專業支援和學習過程,旨在通過與較多年資、曾接受督導培訓的督導進行定期討論,協助專業助人者發展自己的專業,促進自主決策;通過反思和臨床實踐分析提高對個人的保障和安全的服務。




What are the aims of clinical supervision? 臨床督導的目的是什麼?


Clinical supervision provides an opportunity for professionals to: - Reflect on and review their practice. - Discuss individual cases in depth. - Change or modify their practice and identify training and continuing development needs. 臨床督導為專業人員提供了以下機會: - 反思並回顧他們的做法。 - 深入討論個案。 - 改變或調整其實踐,並辨識培訓和持續發展之需求。




Who need to receive clinical supervision?  誰需要接受臨床督導?


Clinical supervision is often primarily aimed at registered professionals (for example, nurses, doctors, social workers and allied health professionals). 臨床督導通常主要針對註冊專業人員(例如,護士、醫生、社會工作者和相關的衛生專業人員)。




What are the benefits of clinical supervision? 接受臨床督導有什麼好處?


Clinical supervision has a number of benefits for professionals: • Assisting management of the personal and professional demands created by the nature of their work provides an environment for exploring their own personal and emotional reactions to their work. • It can allow to reflect on and challenge their own practice in a safe and confidential environment. They can also receive feedback on their skills that is separate from managerial considerations. • It can be one part of their professional development, and also help to identify developmental needs. It can contribute towards meeting requirements of professional bodies and regulatory requirements for continuing professional development (where applicable). 臨床督導對專業人員有很多好處:
•透過提供一個可以探索自己對工作的個人和情感反應的環境,協助人員管理因工作性質而產生的個人和專業需求。
•使人員在安全和保密的環境中反思和挑戰自己的做法,收到管理之外的反饋意見。
•可能是他們專業發展的一部分,也有助於辨識發展需求。滿足專業機構的要求和持續專業發展的法規要求(如適用)。




What training and development should supervisors have? 督導應有哪些培訓和發展?


Supervisors should be adequately trained, experienced and supported to perform their role. They may not always come from the same professional background as the supervisee, but the supervisor should have the skills, qualifications, experience and knowledge of the area of practice required to undertake their role effectively. They should also be supported through having their own clinical supervision. 督導應接受過適當的培訓、有經驗和被支援。督導不一定與受被督導者來自同一專業背景,但應具有有效行使職責所需之實踐領域的技能、資歷、經驗和知識,亦應通過自己的臨床監督得到支援。




What is the role of the supervisor? 督導的角色是什麼?


Effective clinical supervision relies on a good working relationship between supervisors and supervisees. Supervisors should: - Adopt a supportive and facilitative approach to help supervisees to identify issues, manage their response to their practice and identify personal and professional development needs. - Ensure a supervision contract is place so that both supervisor and supervisee are aware of roles, responsibilities and boundaries. - Keep a record of supervision sessions, reviewing any action plans. - Act appropriately where there are serious concerns about the conduct, competence or health of a practitioner. - Keep up to date with their own professional development including ensuring that they have access to their own supervision. 有效的臨床督導取決於督導與被督導者之間良好的工作關係。 督導應:
- 採用支持和促參之方法,以協助被督導者發現問題、管理他們對實踐的反應並辨識個人和專業發展需求。
- 確保簽訂督導合同,以便督導和被督導者都知道角色、職責和界限。
- 記錄督導會議,回顧所有行動計劃。
- 於對人員的專業守則、能力或健康的有嚴重關注的情況下,採取適當的行動。
- 自己的專業發展與時俱進,包括確保有自己的督導。




What is the role of the supervisee? 被督導者的角色是什麼?


Effective clinical supervision relies on a good working relationship between supervisors and supervisees. Supervisees should: - Prepare for supervision sessions, which include identifying issues from their practice for discussion with their supervisor. - Take responsibility for making effective use of time, and for the outcomes and actions taken as result of the supervision. - Take an active role in their own personal and professional development, keeping written records of their supervision sessions. 有效的臨床督導取決於督導與被督導者之間良好的工作關係。
被督導者應:
•為督導會議做準備,包括從實踐中找出問題,以便與督導討論。
•對有效的時間運用、督導產生的結果和採取的措施負責。
•在自己的個人和專業發展中發揮積極作用,並保存其督導會議的書面記錄。





Couple Facilitation 伴侶協談導引


Assessment for Children

Assessment of Children 兒童評估


The assessment of children begins in the intital consultation with parents, incorporatiing a developmental, relational, and biological perspective on the presenting symptoms and include data collected on interview. Observation of dyadic or triadic interactions, scores on validated screening tools, psychological testing and developmental assessments tests are chosen based on the reason for the evaluation and the evaluator’s clinical judgment as to which tests will be most appropriate for an individual. 兒童評估從與父母進行的初步諮詢開始,結合對出現症狀於發展層面、關係角度和生物學觀點,在訪談中收集數據。互動關係觀察評估、篩查工具、心理測試和發育評估測試一般根據評估的原因和評估者的臨床判斷進行最適合選擇。




Examples for Screening & Test 篩查及測試的例子


Developmental:

- Ages and Stages Questionnaires® (ASQ®3)

- Merrill-Palmer-Revised (MPR)

Intellectual/ Cognitive:

- Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – 5th Edition

- Leiter International Performance Scale, 3rd Ed.

Neuropsychological (such as memory, attention, executive functions)
- NEPSY-2 Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment – 2nd Edition

- Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test

Psychological and Emotional

- Projective Drawings

- Sentence Completion Test

- Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children

- Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)

- M-CHAT™ - Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers

- Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule – 2nd Edition




Why start with parent consultation 評估前需要先家長諮詢節之原因


Parent consultation is actually a common assessment technique: clinical interview. The purpose of clinical interview is to gather information. During the session, the concern of assessment and plan of assessment (including but not limited to arranging suitable assessment tool, date, numbers of session and informing the cost of the assessment) will be discussed. Purpose of parent consultation: 1. To understand what's causing those symptoms, which is similar to medical testing. 2. To assist the development of treatment/ intervention plan. For more information, please read the article “Understanding psychological testing and assessment” at the website of American Psychological Association (https://www.apa.org/topics/psychological-testing-assessment) 家長諮詢其實是一種常見的評估技術:臨床訪談,目的是收集訪談信息,諮詢過程亦旨在找出需評估之問題及計劃(包括但不只限:安排合適的評估工具、日期、節數及令家長了解成本)。 目的: 1. 與醫學測試相似,即用作了解引起症狀/問題嘅原因 2. 有助於制定治療/介入計劃 詳細資料可參考美國心理學會發表的文章:《了解心理測試和評估》。 原文可參考 https://www.apa.org/topics/psychological-testing-assessment。





© 2020 by Nadia H. K. Chan. All Rights Reserved.  

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