Why do I need a consultation session before any assessment and/or interventions? 為什麼在評估和/或介入前需要進行諮詢？
A session of psychological consultation is necessary before assessment, counseling, and/or intervention. The aim of the consultation session is to seek for direction and measures. It is similar to the medical consultation before prescription.
* please bring along (medical, psychological, or school) report and medical prescription if any.
What is a consultation? 什麼是諮詢？
Consultation refers to clinical, educational and/or child psychologists using their specialist knowledge and experience to provide a professional opinion, to assist others in problem-solving or to set up services. It is relatively a short-term, i.e. usually one-session interview, to identify current situation in order to make appropriate strategy to work with the concern. Consultations can be in relation to concerns of a particular child/ young person, which may involve working with parents, carers, families or education setting.
What happens during initial/parent consultation? 初次/家長諮詢節會怎樣進行？
During the inital consulation, which usually takes 75 to 90 minutes, in addition to expectation of the consultation, information related to current situation/condition and concern, such as psychosocial background, health history, family, other relationships, social life and interests, will be gathered. This helps a psychologist get a big picture understanding of how concerns may have developed and how they are impacting a client, in order to formulate appropriate recommendations, plan and/or strategy to proceed together for the concern. For issue about a specific child or young person, parent consultation is highly recommended to be arranged to explore a comprehensive understanding before meeting with the child and/or the young person.
* please bring along with (medical, psychological, or school) report and medical prescription if any.
Psychological Interventions 心理介入措施
What is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy? 認知行為療法是什麼？
Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapeutic modality that has been shown to be effective in over 1,000 research studies. It is a time-sensitive, structured, present-oriented approach that helps individuals identify goals that are most important to them and overcome obstacles that get in the way. It is based on the cognitive model: the way that individuals perceive a situation is more closely connected to their reaction than the situation itself.
For more information about CBT, please visit https://beckinstitute.org/get-informed/what-is-cognitive-therapy/
For treatment with CBT on different conditions, please visit https://beckinstitute.org/get-informed/conditions/
What is EMDR Therapy? 快速眼動療法是什麼？
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an extensively researched psychotherapy method proven to help people recover from trauma and other distressing life experiences, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, and panic disorders.
For more about EMDR, please visit https://www.emdria.org/about-emdr-therapy/
For more about typical EMDR treatment, please visit https://www.emdria.org/about-emdr-therapy/experiencing-emdr-therapy/
What is Theraplay®? Theraplay®是什麼？
Theraplay® is a dyadic child and family therapy that has been recognized by the Association of Play Therapy as one of seven seminal psychotherapies for children. Developed over 50 years ago, and practiced around the world, Theraplay® was developed for any professional working to support healthy child/caregiver attachment. Theraplay enhances relationship building from the "Inside Out". In treatment, the Theraplay® Practitioner guides the parent and child through playful, fun games, developmentally challenging activities, and tender, nurturing activities. The very act of engaging each other in this way helps the parent regulate the child's behavior and communicate love, joy, and safety to the child. It helps the child feel secure, cared for, connected and worthy.
For more information, please visit https://theraplay.org
Theraplay®是一種以一對親子互動為單位的兒童和家庭療法，被美國遊戲治療協會認可為七種開創性的兒童心理療法之一。 Theraplay®於50年前開發為以專業工作支援健康的兒童/照顧者依戀關係而開發，並在世界範圍內廣泛使用。 Theraplay®從「由內而外」增強建立關係的能力。在治療方面，Theraplay®執行師會引導父母和孩子進行有趣的遊戲，合發展階段的挑戰活動以及溫柔的養育活動。以這種方式參與互相行為本身就可以幫助父母調節兒童的行為，並向兒童傳達愛、喜樂和安全感，亦協助兒童感到安全、被照顧、與人連結及其價值。
What is Prescriptive Play Therapy? 處方遊戲療法是什麼？
Developed by Charles Schaefer, the basic premise underlying prescriptive play therapy is the notion that all play therapy approaches have the potential to be the one most useful approach for some children, and no single approach is the best fit for all children. The goal of treatment is to identify the best possible evidence-based intervention or strategy to maximize symptom reduction and promote overall therapeutic gain.
What are counseling and psychotherapy? 輔導和心理治療是什麼？
Counseling and Psychotherapy are called "talk therapy" where the concern of client is resolved through a mutual understanding and collaborative process with conversation and behavioral tasks. Most of the times counseling and psychotherapy are interchangeable. Both of them can focus on current behavioral concern (e.g., changing a habit, making a decision, adapting a new environment, etc), and chronic distress and development of the person (e.g., emotional distress or disorder, thinking patterns and consequences, empowerment of the person against stressors, etc), requiring reciprocal respect, honesty and collaboration between a client and a worker. Evidence-based approaches will be applied, which have been evaluated and shown to be effective in clinical research trials.
How counseling and psychotherapy work? 諮詢和心理治療是怎樣進行？
Major steps involved in the process of counseling and psychotherapy:
Step 1: Initial Contact (contact us via WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, WeChat or email.
Please leave us a contact number so we can contact you with a private message.) and setting up a consultation appointment (will be set up within 48 hours)
Step 2: Consultation = Registration, Screening, Assessment and Planning
Step 3: Working as a Team = your active participation with your individualized plan.
- Each session will be around 50 to 60 minutes.
- You may experience a range of emotions and expectations, depending on the psychotherapeutic approach and the circumstances of your situation.
- Major tasks: application of interventions, progress evaluation, reviews & modification of plan.
Step 4: Summarisation and Termination
第二步：諮詢 = 見面、評測及規劃介入/治療重點
第三步：協作 = 積極參與屬於您的個人化計劃的時間。
What is evidence-based practice? 什麼是循證實踐？
Evidence-based practice in psychology is the integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of client characteristics, culture, and preferences. EBPP promotes effective psychological practice and enhances public health by applying empirically supported principles of psychological assessment, case formulation, therapeutic relationship, and intervention to all professional practices.
What is Biofeedback? 生物反饋是什麼？
Biofeedback is a technique that involves monitoring a person’s physiological state and feeding information about it back to that person. Recipients of the feedback are trained to consciously control aspects of their physiology—using relaxation techniques to slow down heart rate, for example—and this learning is used to help manage symptoms of a variety of medical and psychological conditions. Neurofeedback is a form of biofeedback that involves the use of information from the brain detected using a method such as EEG.
For more about Biofeedback, please visit https://www.bcia.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3523
What is Couple Facilitation? 伴侶協談導引是什麼？
Couple Facilitators can be marriage educators, clergy, mentor couples, counselors, or healthcare professionals, assisting couples strengthen their relationship though identifying strength and growth areas of couples, initiating meaningful discussion, establishing personal, couple, and family goals, coaching relationship skill-building exercises for communication, conflicts resolution and stress reduction.
Testing & Evaluation 評估
What is psychological assessment? 什麼是心理評估？
Psychological assessment is a process of testing that uses a combination of techniques to help arrive at some hypotheses about a person and their behavior, personality and capabilities. Psychological assessment is also referred to as psychological testing. Psychological testing is nearly always performed by a licensed psychologist and/or a trainned mental health profession.
心理評估是一種使用多種技術組合的測試過程，幫助得出有關一個人及其行為、性格和能力的一些假設。 心理評估也稱為心理測試。 心理測試大多由持牌心理學家和/或受過訓練的心理健康專業人士進行。
What does an assessment usually involve? 評估通常涉及什麼？
A psychological assessment generally involves four phases:
1. a pre-assessment consultation
2. session(s) of psychological testing
3. behavioral observation (whenever necessary)
4. post-assessment feedback
What is an assessment report? 評估報告是什麼？
Assessment report generally includes following parts:
- purpose for evaluation
- assessment procedures
- mental status examination/ behavioural observation
- relevant background information
- datas, results and interpretation of the evaluation
- summary/ recommendations
What is psychological assessment for? 心理評估有什麼用？
Psychological assessment identifies one’s abilities and qualities, and helps in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. It usually measures one’s current level of function, intellectual and learning ability, cognitive functioning, social functioning, general personality profiles, or emotional functioning, including but not limited to:
- Adaptive Behavior Assessment
- Attention Assessment
- Autism Spectrum Assessment
- Cognitive Assessment
- Memory Assessment
- Mental Health Assessment
- Mood & Behavioral Assessment
Typical assessment methods. 評估方法
Methods of assessment can be informal (such as conducting natural observations, collecting data, using informant ratings) and formal (using assessment tools such as questionnaires and standardized testing).
What is Telepsychology? 什麼是遠程心理服務？
The provision of psychological services using technological modalities in lieu of, or in addition to, traditional face-to-face methods (e.g., provision of psychological interventions using phone, videoteleconferencing, use of applications, email).
How does Telepsychology work? 遠程心理服務如何運作？
Web-conferencing platform will be used for most sessions. All you will need is an internet connection and a computer with a webcam and microphone, or a smartphone. After scheduling the first appointment, a secure meeting link will be sent via email. A few minutes before the appointment time, click the link to enter a virtual waiting room. When the session begins, I’ll welcome you into our secure private meeting room where your session will take place.
Other Telepsychology will be developed in near future.
網絡會議平台將用於大多數服務中。 您所需要的只是互聯網連接以及帶網絡攝像頭和麥克風的電腦或智能電話。 安排首次見面後，安全的會議鏈接將通過電郵發送。 預約時間前幾分鐘，單擊鏈接進入虛擬等候室。 見面開始時，我將歡迎您進入我們安全的私人虛擬會議室，在該虛擬會議室進行見面。
Clinical Supervision 臨床督導
What is Clinical Supervision? 臨床督導是什麼？
Clinical Supervision is a formal, systematic and continuous process of professional support and learning, for practicing helping professionals, in which they are assisted in developing their practice through regular discussion with experienced and trained supervisors and aims to promote autonomous decision-making, valuing the individual’s protection and safe care provision through reflective processes and clinical practice analysis.
What are the aims of clinical supervision? 臨床督導的目的是什麼？
Clinical supervision provides an opportunity for professionals to:
- Reflect on and review their practice.
- Discuss individual cases in depth.
- Change or modify their practice and identify training and continuing development needs.
Who need to receive clinical supervision? 誰需要接受臨床督導？
Clinical supervision is often primarily aimed at registered professionals (for example, nurses, doctors, social workers and allied health professionals).
What are the benefits of clinical supervision? 接受臨床督導有什麼好處？
Clinical supervision has a number of benefits for professionals:
• Assisting management of the personal and professional demands created by the nature of their work provides an environment for exploring their own personal and emotional reactions to their work.
• It can allow to reflect on and challenge their own practice in a safe and confidential environment. They can also receive feedback on their skills that is separate from managerial considerations.
• It can be one part of their professional development, and also help to identify developmental needs. It can contribute towards meeting requirements of professional bodies and regulatory requirements for continuing professional development (where applicable).
What training and development should supervisors have? 督導應有哪些培訓和發展？
Supervisors should be adequately trained, experienced and supported to perform their role.
They may not always come from the same professional background as the supervisee, but the supervisor should have the skills, qualifications, experience and knowledge of the area of practice required to undertake their role effectively. They should also be supported through having their own clinical supervision.
What is the role of the supervisor? 督導的角色是什麼？
Effective clinical supervision relies on a good working relationship between supervisors and supervisees.
- Adopt a supportive and facilitative approach to help supervisees to identify issues, manage their response to their practice and identify personal and professional development needs.
- Ensure a supervision contract is place so that both supervisor and supervisee are aware of roles, responsibilities and boundaries.
- Keep a record of supervision sessions, reviewing any action plans.
- Act appropriately where there are serious concerns about the conduct, competence or health of a practitioner.
- Keep up to date with their own professional development including ensuring that they have access to their own supervision.
What is the role of the supervisee? 被督導者的角色是什麼？
Effective clinical supervision relies on a good working relationship between supervisors and supervisees.
- Prepare for supervision sessions, which include identifying issues from their practice for discussion with their supervisor.
- Take responsibility for making effective use of time, and for the outcomes and actions taken as result of the supervision.
- Take an active role in their own personal and professional development, keeping written records of their supervision sessions.
Couple Facilitation 伴侶協談導引
Assessment for Children
Assessment of Children 兒童評估
The assessment of children begins in the intital consultation with parents, incorporatiing a developmental, relational, and biological perspective on the presenting symptoms and include data collected on interview. Observation of dyadic or triadic interactions, scores on validated screening tools, psychological testing and developmental assessments tests are chosen based on the reason for the evaluation and the evaluator’s clinical judgment as to which tests will be most appropriate for an individual.
Examples for Screening & Test 篩查及測試的例子
- Ages and Stages Questionnaires® (ASQ®3)
- Merrill-Palmer-Revised (MPR)
- Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – 5th Edition
- Leiter International Performance Scale, 3rd Ed.
Neuropsychological (such as memory, attention, executive functions)
- NEPSY-2 Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment – 2nd Edition
- Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test
Psychological and Emotional
- Projective Drawings
- Sentence Completion Test
- Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children
- Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)
- M-CHAT™ - Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers
- Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule – 2nd Edition
Why start with parent consultation 評估前需要先家長諮詢節之原因
Parent consultation is actually a common assessment technique: clinical interview. The purpose of clinical interview is to gather information. During the session, the concern of assessment and plan of assessment (including but not limited to arranging suitable assessment tool, date, numbers of session and informing the cost of the assessment) will be discussed.
Purpose of parent consultation:
1. To understand what's causing those symptoms, which is similar to medical testing.
2. To assist the development of treatment/ intervention plan.
For more information, please read the article “Understanding psychological testing and assessment” at the website of American Psychological Association (https://www.apa.org/topics/psychological-testing-assessment)